Exam 1 Kellogg

Question Answer
Sample individuals selected to represent the population
Population all possible individuals which a study may apply to.
parameter numerical value that replaces characteristic of a population
Statistic Numerical value that describes a characteristic of a sample
Variable Characteristic that changes within the same individual or between different individuals
Sampling Error Numeric difference that exists between the statistic and the parameter
Nominal No real quantitative value: Numbers simply replace name
Ratio Has an absolute zero
Ordinal variable has ordered categories that are not equidistant and does not have a point of absolute zero: Order is not equal distance
Interval Variable has ordered numeric categories that are equal but does not have a point of absolute zero
Experimental method cause and effect
Correlational (Observational) method naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
Dependent Variable measurable/observable for group differences to access the effect of Independent variable
Independent variable variable manipulated (or controlled) by experimenter.
Operational definition defining a variable by manner in which the variable is used or measured.
Inferential statistics procedure used to generalize characteristics of sample to population
What two graphs can be used for Ordinal Bar or Pie graph
What two graphs can be used for Nominal Bar or Pie graph
What two graphs can be used for Interval Freq Poly or Histogram
What two graphs can be used for Ratio Freq Poly or Histogram
Constant Does NOT change from one individual to the next
Theory Set of ideas used to explain the functioning of and making predictions about a relationships or set or relationships
Hypothesis Specific, testable prediction about the relationship between two or more variables
Experimental control using random assignment and holding extraneous variables constant
Experimental group receives the treatment level of the independent variable, get some sort of active treatment
Control Group Does NOT receive the treatment of the independent variable: Gets no treatment or placebo
Confounding variable Uncontrolled variable that can systematically vary with independent, masking or enhancing the true effect or the independent variable.
Mesokurtic normal distribution
Leptokurtic Tall and Thin
Platykurtic flat with little elevation
Skew where does the tail extension
Kurtosis odd shape
Give examples of Nominal Number given in place of name: Male/Female
Give examples of Ordinal Order Matters; numbers mean different things: Ranks/Place finishes
Give example of Intervals has both nominal and ordinal scales, but the numbers are equal (2 and 3 is the same distance as 3 is to 4)
Give example of Ratio Has all the characteristics as nominal, ordinal and intervals except it has an absolute zero: Kelvin scale. Zero means Zero