Term Definition
define statistics the sciences of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data
3 examples of how statistics are used in everyday life 1. used in fields of human endeavor-sports, public health, and education
2. used ton analyze the results of a survey
3. used as a tool in scientific research
4.other uses include operations research, quality control estimation, and predictions
3 reasons to study statistics be able to understand statistical studies be able to conduct research, design experiments, make predictions, and communicate results
branch area of statistics- example of descriptive and inferential 1.descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data
2.inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimation and hypothesis test,determiningrelationships..
examples of variables- qualitative and quantitative (both discrete and continuous) 1. qualitative- gender, color, religion, location
2. quantitative- age, height, weight, body temp
discrete variables-counted, # of children, # of calls
continuous- infinite,measuring, fractions
be able to find boundaries – 15cm 14.5-15.5 cm
examples of each of the measurement levels (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio) 1. nominal- gender, zip code, marital status
2. ordinal- grade(A,B,C,D)
3. interval- SAT scores
4. ratio- weight, height
list 2 purposes of for date collection 1. to help describe situations or events
2. to help people make better decisions before acting
list 3 ways to collect data surveys, surveying records, and direct observation
list an advantage and a disadvantage for the 3 kinds of surveys 1. telephone- ADV- cost less, not face to face DIS- not all people home, unlisted
2. mailed- ADV- can cover wider area, cost less, remain anonymous DIS- low number of responses
3. personal interview ADV- indepth DIS- trained more costly
examples of each of the sampling methods (random, systematic, stratifies, and cluster) 1. random- randomly generated
2. systemic- selecting the kth person
3. stratified- people in groups, select a few from each group
4. cluster- people in groups, 1 group represents all
examples of the kind of studies (observational and experimental) 1. observational- when you observe what is/has happening/ed
2. researcher manipulates the independent variable to see hoe it influences the dependent
list 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages for both observational and experimental studies Observationl- ADV- natural setting, dangerous DIS-$ & time
Experimental- ADV-decide how to select and group subjects,control or manipulate individual variables DIS-may occur in an unnatural setting, Subjects knowingly change behavior #HawthorneEffect
identify the independent and dependent variables from studies Independent variable is the variable you change to see the relation of another variable
Dependent variable is the outcome vaariable
list the 5 uses of statistics to describe data, to compare 2 or more data sets, to determine if variables are related, to test hypothesis, and to make estimations
list the 7 minuses of statistics suspect samples, ambiguous averages, changing the subject, detached statistics, implied connections, misleading graphs, and faulty surveys
identify things that make a survey question bad biased questions, samples not random, confusing words, asking double barreled questions, using double negatives, ordering questions improperly
list the problems for getting random samples and systematic samples