chapter 1 test

Term Definition
variable characteristic or attribute that can assume different values
data values of the variables
random variable variables that have their value determined by chance
data set collection of data values
data value — datum each value of the data set
probability the chance of an event occuring
population consists of all subjects being studied
sample group of subjects selected from a population
hypothesis testing decision-making process for evaluating claims about a population based on info from samples
independent variable (exploratory) a variable in correlation and regression analysis that can be controlled or manipulated
dependent event (outcome, resultant) events for which the outcome or occurrence of the first event affects the outcome or occurrence of the second event in such a way that the probability is changed
true vs. quasi experiments one case where the subjects are assigned to groups randomly while the other case is where subjects are in intact groups
confounding variable a variable that influences the outcome variable but can't be separated from the other variables that influence the outcome variable.
Hawthorne effect an effect on an outcome variable caused by the that subjects of the study know that they are participating in the study
control group a group in an experimental study that isn't given any special treatment
treatment group a group in an experimental study that has received some kind of treatment
margin of error a usually small amount that is allowed for in case of miscalculation or change of circumstances
margin of error interval the interval calculated after finding the amount of miscalculation or change of circumstances
biased question a question constructed badly and is asked in such a way that the respondent can understand it wrongly and if can favor a certain answer
unbiased question questions that are read in a way that they don't influence the respondents or provide info. which may color the opinions of the respondents
sequential sampling used in quality control; successive units taken from the production line and sampled to ensure the product meets the standards
double sampling a sampling method in which a very large population is given a questionnaire to determine those who meet the qualifications for a study; the questionnaire is reviewed, a second smaller population is defined, and a sample is selected from this group
multistage sampling a sampling technique that uses a combination of sampling methods